cio` che vado a scrivere per raccontare, invitandoti se lo vorrai ad estenderlo a tuo marito, che qui saluto con affetto e stima (tra l`altro apprezzando come sempre i suoi interessi e le sue letture, riscontrando in particolare la recente attenzione a documenti come il Sepher Yetzirah nella eccezionale redazione di Aryieh Kaplan).
Ricorderai come nell`ormai lontana volta precedente – era forse il 2004 – avevo strutturato un percorso su Kandinskij e la saga artistica del Blau Reiter. Questa volta l`argomento passa da punti, linee e superfici, a un terreno ancora piu` insolito e complesso, che potrebbe trovare la sua perfetta sintesi nel paradosso delle origini occulte dell`illuminismo.
Quel che trovi di seguito e` il resoconto, invero ancora stentoreo, di quanto ho potuto verificare la mia ipotesi della convergenza storicamente strutturale tra gli Illuminati di Baviera, l`Ordine della Rosa+Croce e il sistema della Golden Dawn.
Questi soggetti, come vedrai dallo svolgersi dell`articolo, sono tra di loro confinanti e collegati ma, al tempo stesso, si separano e si dividono sino a diventare antagonisti e inconciliabili, per cui annuncio questo resoconto come traccia di distinzioni e differenze estremamente significative.
Spero l`argomento possa interessarti, e che Sapientia Dei Dominatibur Astris si manifesti alla tua mente.
Con i miei piu` cari e cordiali saluti e moltissimi affettuosi baci ai tuoi bellissimi figli.
The Dawn of Enlightenment.
To talk about the Enlightenment`s doctrine needs to talk about the persons who introduced the political and historical meaning of the Illuminati system.
Adam Weishaupt was the founder of Bavarian Illuminati, an Enlightenment Society founded on May 1st, 1776 in Ingolstadt (Upper Bavaria). He was born on February 6, 1748 in Ingolstadt in the Electorate of Bavaria. (source: Engel, Leopold. Geschichte des Illuminaten-ordens. Berlin, H. Bermühler Verlag, 1906.) Weishaupt’s father Johann Georg Weishaupt (1717–1753) died when he was five years old. After his father’s death he came under the tutelage of his godfather Johann Adam Freiherr von Ickstatt (source: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie Vol. 13, pp. 740–741) who, like his father, was a professor of law at the University of Ingolstadt. Ickstatt was a proponent of the philosophy of Christian Wolff and of the Enlightenment, and he influenced the young Weishaupt with his rationalism. Weishaupt began his formal education at age seven at a school controlled by the Jesuits.
He later enrolled at the University of Ingolstadt and graduated in 1768 at age 20 with a doctorate of law. In 1772 he became a professor of law. The following year he married Afra Sausenhofer of Eichstätt. After Pope Clement XIV’s suppression of the Society of Jesus in 1773, Weishaupt became a professor of canon law, a position that was held exclusively by the Jesuits until that time. This gave great offense to the clergy.
When Pope Clement XIV dissolved the Jesuits in 1773,
As states Albert G. Mackey (Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, Richmond, Virginia: Macoy Publishing. 1966, p.1099), “Weishaupt, whose views were cosmopolitan, and who knew and condemned the bigotry and superstitions of the Priests, established an opposing party in the University… This was the beginning of the Order of Illuminati or the Enlightened….” In 1775 Weishaupt was introduced to the empirical philosophy of Johann Georg Heinrich Feder. Something new was on the point to happen.
Der Professor für Kirchenrecht und praktische Philosophie an der Universität Ingolstadt, Adam Weishaupt (1748 – 1830), gründet am 1. Mai 1776 den Bund der Perfektibilisten (auch Bienenorden), aus dem zunächst der „Bund der Illuminaten” und schließlich der „Illuminatenorden” entstand. Weishaupt gab sich den Illuminaten-Decknamen “Spartacus”, nach dem altrömischen Sklavenrebellen. Durch Adolph Freiherr Knigges Beitritt 1780 erfuhr der Illuminatenorden bald reichsweite Verbreitung, wobei Knigge (Deckname: “Philo”) neue Mitglieder besonders in den Reihen der Freimaurer anwarb. Am 22. Juni 1784 wurde in Bayern der Illuminatenorden zusammen mit anderen Geheimgesellschaften durch Kurfürst Karl Theodor verboten. Alle Papiere des Ordens, derer man habhaft werden konnte, wurden veröffentlicht. 1785 erklärte Papst Pius VI. in zwei Briefen (vom 18. Juni und 12. November) an den Bischof von Freising die Mitgliedschaft im Orden als unvereinbar mit dem katholischen Glauben. Weitere Verbote durch Karl Theodor folgten am 2. März 1785, am 16. August 1785 und am 16. August 1787 – letzteres stellte die Rekrutierung von Mitgliedern für Freimaurer und Illuminaten unter die Todesstrafe. Viele Mitglieder wurden verhaftet, alle mit der Begründung, sie seien „notorische Freidenker”. Unter Johann Joachim Christoph Bode fand 1785 die Ordenstätigkeit in der Weimarer Minervalkirche ihr Ende. 1785 floh Weishaupt aus Ingolstadt und ließ sich 1787 in Gotha nieder. Dort schrieb er einige Verteidigungsschriften. In Ingolstadt erinnert heute nur noch eine Gedenktafel an dem Gebäude, in dem sich der Versammlungssaal der Illuminaten befand, an den Orden. Das Gebäude befindet sich in der Theresienstr. 23 von Ingolstadt, mitten in der heutigen Fußgängerzone der Stadt. (Source: http://www.ingolstadt.de/stadtmuseum/scheuerer/ausstell/ansich73.htm – Dr. Beatrix Schönewald – Mit den Augen der Künstler – Motive und Ansichten von Ingolstadt aus fünf Jahrhunderten Ausstellung im Stadtmuseum Ingolstadt 2006 zum Jubiläum 1200 Jahre Ingolstadt).
The movement of the Bavarian Illuminati was eclectic and made up of freethinkers. Adam Weishaupt doesn`t agree the traditional, conservative and obscurantist way of Rosicrucianism. There are written temoniages were Weishaupt refers his closest associated, Baron von Knigge, as “a Jesuit in disguise”. Nevertheless, even the order of Perfectibilists was modelled on Jesuit system and with a strong reference in the Rosicrucian doctrine, still the heritage and the refuge for clerical power. At that time, King Frederick William II was under the influence of Wollner, one of his ministers and a leading figure in the Rosicrucian system (Vernon L. Stauffer, New England and the Bavarian Illuminati – Columbia University – volume LXXXII n. 1 – 191 – Chapter III). At that time, Weishaupt was not yet then a Freemason; he was initiated into Lodge Theodore of Good Council (Theodor zum guten Rath), at Munich in 1777 by baron Adolph Knigge. Knigge introduced Adam Weishaupt to the German élites, and in the Illuminaten Order – now transformed as a special and secret philosophical rite into Freemasonry – entered also the Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick (who was the great-grandson of George I of England, husband of Augusta, a sister of George III), the foremost leader of European Freemasonry.
The Order became very popular, and its Lodges were to be found in France, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Poland, Hungary, and Italy. Increasing the reputation of the Order, the group’s adherents were given the name “Illuminati”, although the real name of the lodge was “Order of the Perfectibilists”. Their rituals were rationalistic. Knigge claimed to have a system of ten degrees, even if the last two never were been settled by living ones. Even if satus as a freemason was not required for initiation into the Order of Illuminati, this was required since the fourth, fifth and sixth degrees of Weishaupt and Baron Adolphe-François-Frederic Knigge’s system. The Order was becoming a connective dimension to other Orders.
To understand the success of the Illuminati experience, following is a short list of the more notable members among the 67 names published by the Abbé Barruel (source: http://freemasonry.bcy.ca/texts/illuminati.html): Adam Weishaupt Professor † Adolph Von Knigge Baron † Ferdinand von Brunswick Duke * Xavier von Zwack Lawyer, judge and electoral councillor † Christoph Friedrich Nicolai [Nicholai] Bookseller † Westenrieder Professor † Hertel Canon † Thomas Maria de Bassus Baron † Johann Simon Mayr Composer Dietrich Mayor of Strasbourg Johann J. C. Bode Privy councillor ‡ William von Busche Baron ‡ Saint Germain compte de § De Constanzo Marquis Ernst of Gotha Duke * Johann W. Goethe author *
Weishaupt was introduced also in an important Lodge in Frankfurt, whose leader was Frederick II of Hessen-Kassel, the son of Wilhelm VII, brother of the king of Sweden. In this lodge, the main advisor of Frederick was Amschel Moses Bauer, a Jewish German who began his career in Hanover at the Bank of Oppenheim, and after opened a Counting House in Frankfurt. The Counting House became famous because of its red door where was placed the sign of a red shield (the same of the Prague Jews, in accordance to the Jacob Frank’s doctrine of the ten lost tribes of Edom). A red shield in German is a “roth schield”, and Rotschield became the name of Amschel’s sons.
And it happen in Frankfurt, at the Lodge of the Garter, that Weishaupt accepted the Rothschield`s suggestion to introduce in the Rosicrucian system (an esoteric christian doctrine) the kabalistic teachings of Jacob Frank (which comes from the teachings of Nathan di Gaza and the lost Messiah, Shabbatai Tzevi).
This changes were something very important, because this is the very beginning of the modern Enlightenment doctrine inside a former Rosicrucian (and therefore catholic) doctrine. Yet, also the Order of the Garter was nothing else than a Jesuitical Rosicrucian system. Now, after Weishaupt began to work according to the desire of Rothschield and the inner Jewish congregation (which name was “The Chabrath Zereq Aor Boqer”, “the brotherhood of the shining light of the dawn and the twilight”, translate in German as “Die Goldene Dammerung” or “Das Loge zur Aufgehende Morgenrothe”, which are equivalent to the Society of the Golden Dawn), they were building a veritable European rationalistic and emancipatory movement.
In the first time, the Bavarian aristocracy was engaged in this work, believing to stay into the Rosicrucian Path. In effect, Frederick II of Hessen-Kassel was a direct descendant of “Maurice the Learned” of Hessen-Kassel, who had to its court prominent Rosicrucians and Alchemists like Michael Maier (and the town of Kassel itself, according to Frances Yates, was the place where the Rosicrucian Manifestos were first published).
Rothschild was interested in financing a more free Order, both hermetic and rational, like the Illuninaten Order of Weishaupt was, and put inside the machinery of Sepher Yetzirah. This was the way a more complex system was introduced inside the Ten Degrees of the Illuminati Order. At that time, the doctrine and its mysteries joined the apex of the attention in the intellectual rings of German élites.
At the top of the popularity, the Order of the Illuminati was charged to be subversive by the Church. Knigge, who was one of its most prominent working members, and the author of several of its Degrees, and was a religious man, was charged by the course accusations of Barruel and Robinson, exaggerated and false.
Quoting Machiavelli, Weishaupt wrote: “the ends justified the means: the actual character of the society was modeled on one of its traditionalist enemies, the Jesuits, and was an elaborate network of spies and counter-spies. I did not bring Deism into Bavaria more than into Rome. I found it here, in great vigour, more abounding than in any of the neighboring Protestant States. I am proud to be known to the world as the founder of the Illuminati.”
Weishaupt’s radical rationalism, sweeping away nations and religions, private property and marriage, with the vocabulary used by the French Revolution, was not likely to succeed, and did not. Writings that were intercepted in 1784 were interpreted as seditious, and the Society was banned by the government of Karl Theodor, Elector of Bavaria in 1784. The Edicts published on June 22, 1784, for the suppression of the Order, were repeated in March and August, 1785.
Weishaupt lost his position at the University of Ingolstadt and fled Bavaria. He was deprived of his chair and banished with pension from the country. He refused the pension and moved to Regensburg, subsequently finding asylum with Ernst II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg.
Adam Weishaupt was later appointed a professor at the University of Gottingen, remaining there until his death on 18 November 1830. ( Mackey. p. 475 ). During the exile, he received the assistance of Duke Ernest II of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (1745–1804), and lived in Gotha writing a series of books. We owe, among Adam Weishaupt works: On the Illuminati * (1786) Apologie der Illuminaten. * (1786) Vollständige Geschichte der Verfolgung der Illuminaten in Bayern. * (1786) Schilderung der Illuminaten. * (1787) Einleitung zu meiner Apologie. * (1787) [Einige Originalschriften des Illuminatenordens…] * (1787) [Nachtrage von weitern Originalschriften…] Google Books * (1787) Kurze Rechtfertigung meiner Absichten. * (1787) Nachtrag zur Rechtfertigung meiner Absichten. * (1787) Apologie des Mißvergnügens und des Übels. * (1787) Das Verbesserte System der Illuminaten. * (1788) Der ächte Illuminat, oder die wahren, unverbesserten Rituale der Illuminaten. * (1795) Pythagoras, oder Betrachtungen über die geheime Welt- und Regierungskunst. Philosophical Works * (1775) De Lapsu Academiarum Commentatio Politica. * (1786) Über die Schrecken des Todes – eine philosophische Rede. o (French) Discours Philosophique sur les Frayeurs de la Mort (1788). Gallica * (1786) Über Materialismus und Idealismus. Torino * (1788) Geschichte der Vervollkommnung des menschlichen Geschlechts. * (1788) Über die Gründe und Gewißheit der Menschlichen Erkenntniß. * (1788) Über die Kantischen Anschauungen und Erscheinungen. * (1788) Zweifel über die Kantischen Begriffe von Zeit und Raum. * (1793) Über Wahrheit und sittliche Vollkommenheit. * (1794) Über die Lehre von den Gründen und Ursachen aller Dinge. * (1794) Über die Selbsterkenntnis, ihre Hindernisse und Vorteile. * (1797) Über die Zwecke oder Finalursachen. * (1802) Über die Hindernisse der baierischen Industrie und Bevölkerung. * (1804) Die Leuchte des Diogenes. o (English) The Lamp of Diogenes . (Tr. Amelia Gill) introduced by Sir Mark Bruback chosen by the Masonic Book Club to be its published work for 2008. (Ed. Andrew Swanlund). * (1817) Über die Staats-Ausgaben und Auflagen. Google Books * (1818) Über das Besteuerungs-System.
Adam Weishaupt died in Gotha on the 18th of November, 1830, and was survived by his second wife, Anna Maria (born Afra Sausenhofer), and his children Nanette, Charlotte, Ernst, Karl, Eduard, and Alfred. Weishaupt was buried next to his son Wilhelm who preceded him in death in 1802.
But the history of the Illuminati Order and of its divergence from the Rosicrucian system was just on the beginning.